Liberals brought Nazi vets to Canada: Glorifying Ukrainian-Canadian Veterans of OUN/UPA Terrorism

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Liberals brought Nazi vets to Canada: Glorifying Ukrainian-Canadian Veterans of OUN/UPA Terrorism

This Captive Canada article examines the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (a Nazi political/military organisation involved in terrorism, mass murder and ethnic cleansing) and its close links to the Ukrainian Canadian Congress (UCC).  In 1940, the Liberal government facilitated the creation of the UCC and then brought many of its veterans to Canada after WWII. (Read details here.)  Liberals, Conservatives and the NDP alike continue to court the UCC.

This article was written for and first appeared in

Press for Conversion cover #68Captive Canada
Renditions of the Peaceable Kingdom at War,

from Narratives of WWI and the Red Scare
to the Mass Internment of Civilians

Issue #68 of Press for Conversion (Spring 2016), pp.44-45. (As a sidebar to Left-Right Camps: A Century of Ukrainian Canadian Internment.) Published by the Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT).  If you quote this article, please cite the source above.  And, please consider subscribing, ordering a copy &/or donating. Thanks!


Glorifying Ukrainian-Canadian Veterans of OUN/UPA Terrorism

By Richard Sanders

Since the 1930s, Canada’s Ukrainian Right has included groups representing the two main factions of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).  This fascist European political/military organisation embraced terrorism as a strategy for achieving its goal of statehood. Testimony at the Nuremberg Tribunal showed that leaders of both OUN camps worked with the Abwehr, the military intelligence service of the Nazi Army’s “Supreme Command.”1

One faction, known as the OUN-M, was led by Andriy Melnyk. After commanding a company of Ukrainian rifleman in the Austro-Hungarian Army during WWI, Melnyk spent the 1930s managing the huge forested estate of the Ukrainian Catholic Archbishop.  Melnykites are represented in the Ukrainian Canadian Congress (UCC) by the Ukrainian National Federation (UNF). The UNF website says it “was founded ...by members of the... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, who’s [sic] influences and vision remain a vital part of the organization to this day.”2 

A militant OUN spinoff, the OUN-B, was led by Stepan Bandera, the son of a Ukrainian Catholic priest. In 1954, he said “Ukrainian Nationalism was a Christian movement whose roots lay in the world view and spirituality of Ukrainian people.”3 The League of Ukrainian Canadians is Canada’s leading Banderite group. Joining the UCC in 1959, it became a dominant force in this government-created alliance of Ukrainian nationalists bound by their fervent antiCommunism. The League, and its youth and womens’ groups, are still members of the UCC, whose “executive committee is dominated by Banderites.”4

Bandera’s followers see him as an “eternal hero” of Ukrainian nationalism.  The cult’s myths obfuscate and deny the OUN-B’s role in terrorism, mass murder, ethnic cleansing and Nazi collaboration during the Holocaust,5 in which 90% of Ukraine’s Jews were killed.6 Also sublimated is the OUN-B’s recourse to Judeo-Red conspiracy narratives. For example, a resolution from its 1941 congress said:
    “Jews in the USSR constitute the most faithful support of the ruling Bolshevik regime, and the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in Ukraine.... The OUN combats Jews as the support of the Muscovite-Bolshevik regime but ...gives notice to the popular masses that the principal foe is Moscow.”7

University of Alberta professor Karyn Ball and Swedish historian Per Rudling detail how the UCC and others have
    “dismissed or minimised an increasingly well-documented history of Ukrainian nationalist participation in pogroms and collaboration with the Nazis in mass murder in order to consolidate a heroic-victim identity for Canadian-Ukrainians....”8
Rudling and Ball describe how Ukrainian-Canadian “ultranationalists” have often
    “resorted to a competitive victimology as they exaggerate the death count associated with the Ukrainian famine of 1932-33...[the Holodomor], in order to appropriate and supersede the Jewish genocide’s perceived moral capital.”9

The OUN-B used the mass atrocities of Stalin’s secret police “as a pretext for pogroms across Western Ukraine, holding Jews collectively responsible.”10 In May 1941, when “the OUN-B...issued a blueprint for the nationalist uprising that was to accompany the German invasion,” its fliers were crystal clear, saying: “Know this!  Moscow, Magyars, Jews—these are all your enemies. Exterminate them.”  The OUN-B called for a “dog’s death” for “Muscovite-Jewish intruders,” and “internment camps...for Jews, [and] asocial elements.” Its slogans included: “Ukraine for the Ukrainians” and “Death to the Muscovite-Jewish commune!”11

As the OUN-B’s paramilitary force, the UPA committed major atrocities during it ethnic-cleansing of western Ukraine.  Yale History professor Timothy Snyder detailed how in 1943 the UPA killed 40,000 to 60,000 Polish civilians in Volhynia. They also wiped out most of the Jews who had survived the previous year when 13,000 Ukrainian police aided some 1,400 German police in murdering about 200,000 Volhynian Jews.12

In 1942-1943, the UPA also killed up to 40,000 Poles in east Galicia. In early 1944, the UPA commander said that:
    “In view of the success of the Soviet forces, it is necessary to speed up the liquidation of the Poles, they must be totally wiped out, their villages burned... [O]nly the Polish population must be destroyed.”13

Despite such evidence, says Rudling, UCC president Paul Grod “remains... committed...to the cult of the OUN and the UPA, vehemently and categorically denying Ukrainian nationalist involvement in the Holocaust.”14  For example in 2010, while praising Ukraine’s government for exalting the OUN and UPA as national heroes, Grod and the UCC asked Canada’s government to change “the War Veterans Allowance Act by expanding eligibility to include...[the] OUN-UPA.”15

Rudling has also noted that
    “the Canadian government directly paid for OUN front groups, gave them tax-exempt status, covered part of the publication costs for their papers, and gave grants to the construction of community centers.”16

References

1.    Trials of war criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals, Vol.6, p.252. 
    http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-06/tgmwc-06-56-12.html

2.    About Us
    http://unfcanada.ca/aboutus/

3.    Anton Shekhovtsov, “By Cross and Sword: ‘Clerical Fascism’ in Interwar Western Ukraine,” in Clerical Fascism in Interwar Europe, 2008, p.64.    
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=KcfhAQAAQBAJ

4.    Karyn Ball & Per A.Rudling, “The Underbelly of Canadian Multiculturalism: Holocaust Obfuscation and Envy in Debate about the Canadian Museum for Human Rights,” Holocaust Studies, Winter 2014, p.47.
    http://www.academia.edu/12207336/

5.    Grzegorz Rossolinski, Stepan Bandera: Life and Afterlife of a Ukrainian Nationalist: Fascism, Genocide and Cult, 2014.
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=SFH_BgAAQBAJ

6.    H.M.Troper, M.Weinfeld, Old Wounds:  Jews, Ukrainians & the Hunt for Nazi War Criminals in Canada, 1988, pp.11-12.
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=iQAVAAAAYAAJ

7.    Michael Marrus, The Nazi Holocaust. Part 5, Vol.1, p.364.
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=dFqbKATiYz8C

8.    Ball and Rudling, Op. cit., p.38

9.    Ibid.  While Rudling and Ball say 3.3 million Ukrainians starved to death in the famine, the UCC (and the Canadian government) often inflate this to over 10 million.

10.    Per Anders Rudling, “‘The Honor They So Clearly Deserve:’ Legitimizing the Waffen-SS Galizien,” Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 26:1, 2013, p.121.
    http://www.academia.edu/2763263

11.    Ball and Rudling, Op. cit., p.44.

12.    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, 2003, pp.170, 162.
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=QJhMhTKw-vgC

13.    Cited by Per Anders Rudling, “Theory and Practice: Historical representation of the wartime accounts of the activities of the OUN-UPA,” East European Jewish Affairs, Dec. 2006, pp.172.
    http://www.academia.edu/380654

14.    Per Anders Rudling, “The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths,” The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies, No.2107, November 2011, p.37.

    https://carlbeckpapers.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/cbp/article/view/164/160

15.    Ukraine’s President Recognizes Ukraine’s Freedom Fighters, February 1, 2010.
    http://www.ucc.ca/2010/02/01/ukraines-president-recognizes-ukraines-freedom-fighters

16.    Per Anders Rudling, personal communication, April 29, 2015.

Regions: 
Richard Sanders Richard Sanders's picture

The main organization in Canada of the fascist Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists -- OUN(M) -- is the Ukrainian National Federation of Canada, or Ukrains'ko Natsional'ne Ob''ednannia (UNO). It is a member in good standing of the ultranationalist Ukrainian Canadian Congress (UCC) which has a powerful influence over Canadian government foreign policies, especially regarding Ukraine and Russia.  This has been the case, through all Liberal and Conservative governments, since the UCC's creation was facilitated by the Liberal government in 1940.

The (M) after the OUN stands for the former OUN leader Andrii Melnyk.  The OUN(M) lacked the extreme militancy of the OUN(B). The (B) after the OUN stands for the leader of this OUN faction, namely Stepan Bandera who is still revered by many as a great hero of Ukrainian nationalism.

The OUN organization was split in 1940 between the two factions (B) and (M).  The Banderite faction assassinated many of the leading Melnykites. So, understandably, there is still a deep-seated rivalry between these two OUN factions.  This split within the ultranationalist Ukrainian community is still felt today in Canada within the UCC.  The Banderite faction though definitely has the upperhand within the UCC, whose leadership -- like longstanding UCC president Paul Grod -- is in the Banderite camp.

When Swedish-American scholar Per Anders Rudling was doing his PhD in history at the University of Alberta in Edmonton he tells me he was "puzzled" at first to see the big monuments in that city to Waffen-SS veterans and to the UPA military commander (and Holocaust perpetrator) Roman Shuhevych.  (The UPA was the Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya or Ukrainian Insurgent Army, i.e., the armed unit of the OUN.)  Seeing these monuments celebrating Ukrainian fascist veterans who were brought to Canada after WWII prompted Rudling to write these two excellent articles:

"Multiculturalism, Memory, and Ritualization: Ukrainian Nationalist Monuments in Edmonton, Alberta," Nationalities Papers Vol. 39, no. 5, (September, 2011): 733-768

"Memories of 'Holodomor' and National Socialism in Ukrainian Political Culture" in Yves Bizeul (ed.) Rekonstruktion des Nationalmythos?: Frankreich, Deutschland und die Ukraine im Vergleich (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress, 2013), 227-258.

Rudling also co-authored this article with a colleague from the Univerisity of Alberta which is also of relevance to this discussion:

Multiculturalism: Holocaust Obfuscation and Envy in the Debate about the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

NDPP

 And here's just one of those nazi vet's history.  But it seems Canadian liberals yesterday are much like Canadian liberals today - as long as you're anti-Russian, all is forgotten and forgiven.  But as it is said: 'the nut never falls far from the tree.'

SCOOP: Canada's New Foreign Minister Lying About Family's Ukrainian Nazi Past  

http://russia-insider.com/en/victim-or-aggressor-chrystia-freelands-fami...

"Chrystia Freeland's grandfather made a lucrative business in Nazi-occupied Europe selling hatred of Jews, Poles and Russians. Freeland is now doing the same, preaching race hatred of Russians.

'The sins of the grandfather can hardly be attributed to the grandfather,' says Polish investigator Balcerac, 'except for two, race hatred and lying.'

 

iyraste1313

Thanks for this....the Trudeau Liberal embracement of such fascist tendency must be watched carefully, exposed as we prepare for the alternative....