The Indian Act (1876 to Present)
The Indian Act is a piece of explicitly racist legislation passed in 1876. It was an attempt to amalgamate all previous legislation related to indigenous populations. Though it had undergone a series of amendments, the bulk of the 1876 bill remains in place. The Indian Act serves to define the relationship between Indigenous peoples in Canada and the Canadian government. What is more is that, the Act defines what constitutes “Indian” culture, polices and identity. It divides and then consolidates people of disparate nations, languages and cultures into three groups: Indian, Métis, and Inuit.
Maple Leaf Rag
Despite the current unsustainability of our individual carbon footprints, the standard method of personal renewal in affluent postmodern society continues to be tourism. Eyes glazed over by routine and sameness are opened to the pseudo-newness of "elsewhere." It's a strategy often used in the creative writing game. From that temporary, distant perspective, one can cast a long look back at one's homeland, and gain fresh insights.
125 years after Louis Riel hanging, it seems that English assimilation is rampant among Metis. Anyaways, that's what suggest some data released by Statistics Canada in the latest issue of "Canadian Social Trends"
An exploration of cultural activities of Métis in Canada: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2010001/article/11142-eng.htm
According to this study only one Metis out of ten can speak "an aboriginal language" (mostly Cree and Ojibway). French, Riel's language, is also only spoken by one out of ten Metis and Michif, the Metis French-Cree Creole, has under 3600 living speakers.