“My personal view is that these pipelines are a joke. I mean they are not pipelines, they are spill lines. Every single one spills." -- Shannon McPhail, Executive Director of the Skeena Watershed Conservation Coalition.
Please support our coverage of democratic movements by clicking here to become a monthly supporter of rabble.ca.
By 2012, the U.S. was awash in light sweet crude from (fracked) shale oil deposits in Texas, North Dakota and elsewhere. With Midwest and Gulf Coast refineries configured to take heavy oil, that light crude has been looking for a refining home.