Solar Flare Erupts Directly At The Earth Should Hit Early Tuesday Morning

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Bec.De.Corbin Bec.De.Corbin's picture
Solar Flare Erupts Directly At The Earth Should Hit Early Tuesday Morning

Bec.De.Corbin Bec.De.Corbin's picture

Quote:

Sunspot 1158 swelled up like a water balloon over a 4 hour period then popped, unleashing an M6.6 category blast DIRECTLY at the Earth. It is traveling at 1119 km/s, and should hit the Earth in 37 hours, or 5-6AM Mountain Standard Time. This is the largest solar flare we have seen in quite a while, and it should produce exciting results for us travelers on the spaceship Earth.

 

 http://www.astronomyreport.com/research/Solar_Flare_Erupts_Directly_At_The_Earth_Should_Hit_Early_Tuesday_Morning.asp

Looks like we survived this one...Smile

Fidel

Phew! HIGH [email protected]

GOD

excuse me  ...Embarassed

radiorahim radiorahim's picture

We're actually just coming out of the bottom of the roughly eleven year solar cycle so this is nothing to get excited about.

As the cycle rises and reaches its peak in a few years, we'll see many more solar flares.    And as solar cycles go, this one (Solar Cycle 24) is rather unexciting and predictions are that it won't be nearly as big a peak as Solar Cycle 23 was.

The "biggie" of Solar Cycles was the one that peaked back in 1957.

The main difference today is that the technology for observing the sun's behaviour has become much better and so every single flare becomes a news item.

Amateur "ham" radio operators like myself pay a lot of attention to solar weather mainly because it has a major effect on the way high frequency (HF) or "shortwave" radio signals get from one place to another.   Radio communications can be enhanced or degraded depending on what the sun happens to be doing on any particular day.

If you happen to be at a northern (or southern) latitude, have a clear night and are away from urban lights, you might see a very cool light show in the sky!

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

 

SOHO EIT 304 Latest Image

Quote:

NOW SHOWING: LIVE FROM THE SUN ... TO YOUR COMPUTER

 

A new computer screen saver made available by the European Space Agency now allows computer users to watch spectacular, almost real-time images of our Sun. The images, coming directly from 1.5 million kilometres away in space, will flash on your computer screen courtesy of ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).

Every time your screen saver kicks in it will look, via the Internet, for the most recent images SOHO has sent to scientists. A few seconds, and the show begins.

You will be able to witness exciting events as they happen on our star: huge expulsions of matter that scientists call Coronal Mass Ejections; sunspots, now growing in number as the Sun reaches the peak of activity in its 11-year cycle; and even the demise of the so-called sun-grazing comets, as they disappear forever into our star. Now, give a rest to your computer and enjoy the show live from the Sun.Free Stuff

There are some scripts that one might like to have on space weather for their site?

 

Add an X-ray flare and Geomagnetic storm monitor to your website

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0><TR>
<TD ALIGN=RIGHT WIDTH=150><STRONG>Solar X-rays: <BR><BR>Geomagnetic Field: </STRONG></TD>
<TD><TABLE BORDER=3 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0><TR>
<TD ALIGN=CENTER><CENTER><A HREF="http://www.n3kl.org/sun/noaa.html"><IMG WIDTH=121
HEIGHT=21 BORDER=0 ALT="Status" SRC="http://www.n3kl.org/sun/images/status.gif?"></A></CENTER></TD>
</TR><TR><TD ALIGN=CENTER><CENTER><A HREF="http://www.n3kl.org/sun/noaa.html"><IMG WIDTH=121
HEIGHT=21 BORDER=0 ALT="Status" SRC="http://www.n3kl.org/sun/images/kpstatus.gif?"></A></CENTER></TD>
</TR>></TABLE></TD><TD WIDTH=150>&nbsp;</TD></TR></TABLE>
From <A HREF="http://www.n3kl.org/sun/noaa.html">n3kl.org</A></CENTER>

 

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

Fidel wrote:

Phew! HIGH [email protected]

 

Reminds me of a couple of guys doing repairs in space:)

radiorahim radiorahim's picture

One other little sunspot related radio story I know of was told to me by a Cuban friend and radio engineer.

During the "mother of all sunspot cycle peaks" there was a little clandestine shortwave radio station broadcasting from the Sierra Maestra Mountains.    That little radio station was called "Radio Rebelde" and was operated by the rebels of the "26th of July Movement".

Because of the intense solar activity during that period, Radio Rebelde was regularly heard all around the world by anyone with a shortwave receiver.   It generated tremendous interest in what was happening in Cuba by the world's media and no doubt played an important role in the triumph of the Cuban revolution on January 1, 1959.

I managed to catch one interesting little piece of history myself via solar enhancement of radio signals by solar activity.

In October, 1983 I was twiddling the dials one evening on my trusty Panasonic RF-3100 radio.   But, I was listening to the regular AM broadcasting band.

We had what's known as "auroral" conditions.   As many people know, AM signals skip off of the D layer of the ionosphere at night time and travel for 500 to a thousand miles.

What happens when we have auroral conditions on the AM radio band is that the signals from "mid latitude" radio stations are attenuated, often allowing radio signals from latitudes further south to be heard.

What was happening in October, 1983?   Leftist Grenadan Prime Minister Maurice Bishop was overthrown in an internal coup d'etat by a rival faction of the governing "New Jewel Movement" and was later killed.    A couple of weeks later Ronald Reagan ordered the U.S. marines to invade for all of the usual excuses.

That particular night I tuned my radio to 990 KHz. on the AM band and surprise of surprises, I was hearing "Radio Free Grenada".

I quickly connected the radio up to a cassette recorder and began reccording.

Radio Free Grenada had news announcements and they were warning the people that the U.S. marines were likely to invade (which they did a day or two later).

Recently, I came across that tape and at some point I'll digitize it and put it up on line.   The quality of the recording isn't great.The signal on the radio was fading in and out and it was a really cheap quality tape.

But, my own little bit of history thanks to the solar weather that particular day.

 

 

 

Searosia

Quote:

We're actually just coming out of the bottom of the roughly eleven year solar cycle so this is nothing to get excited about.

 

I know the cycle you're talking about in reference to climate and the general effect there, but I wasn't aware of the link to solar flares. logically it makes sense I guess. Would you know how strong the variation in this cycle is? in reference to solar flares atleast...if you're interested I can share what I've seen for it's relation to climate.

Le T Le T's picture

Pretty cool, Radiorahim!

remind remind's picture

Thanks for sharing that Rr!

NorthReport
radiorahim radiorahim's picture

Searosia wrote:

Quote:

We're actually just coming out of the bottom of the roughly eleven year solar cycle so this is nothing to get excited about.

 

I know the cycle you're talking about in reference to climate and the general effect there, but I wasn't aware of the link to solar flares. logically it makes sense I guess. Would you know how strong the variation in this cycle is? in reference to solar flares atleast...if you're interested I can share what I've seen for it's relation to climate.

From what I know, the solar cycle has very little if any effect on the earth's weather.   The flat earth society types try from time to time to use whatever very minimal effects the solar cycle might cause on the earth's weather as a means to discount the very real effects that human activity is having on climate change.

The solar cycle does have a very real and observable effect on the ionosphere (the layer of the atmosphere filled with electrically charged particles).  

So it does affect radio communications, can disrupt satellites in orbit around the earth and on rare occasions very large solar flares can disrupt electical power distribution systems because the power lines act like huge receiving antennas.

Solar cycle 24 is expected to peak around 2013 and we've just come through a period of about seven years of very low solar activity.

2010 was a continuing year of low solar activity and yet it was a very warm year around the world.   This year the sun is just starting to become active again and so far it's been rather cold in many parts of the world.

Solar cycle 23 peaked in 2000 with a smoothed sunspot number of approximately 120.   Solar cycle 24 is predicted to only hit around 90.   Solar cycle 19 peaked in 1958 at around 200 smoothed sunspots, and that cycle was the biggest one ever recorded.

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

"All those motorists sitting at traffic lights cursing, should realize that
it is not Hydro-Quebec's fault"
[Hydro-Quebec, 1989].

 


P-mode Shapes

 

Solar HelioSeismology was developed for a reason.:) Have fun with it... look at chaldni plates, and look at the predictable possibility of what is coming from the other side of the sun.

 

Not only communications.....power interruptions the one I am thinking of had to do with New York region.

Boom Boom Boom Boom's picture
Papal Bull

Although it explains it, that seems like a little bit of a 'shock' story and not particularly useful.

Boom Boom Boom Boom's picture

Maybe folks need a bit of a shock to get themselves prepared for the eventuality?

jacki-mo

there is a web site devoted to solar cycle 24:

http://www.solarcycle24.com/

 

see the trend charts and projections for sunspots:  

http://www.solarcycle24.com/sunspots.htm

 

 

 

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

2003 North American Blackout Before

 

Quote:
The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive widespread power outage that occurred throughout parts of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003, at approximately 4:11 p.m. EDT (UTC-04). At the time, it was the second most widespread electrical blackout in history, after the 1999 Southern Brazil blackout.[1][2] The blackout affected an estimated 10 million people in Ontario and 45 million people in eight U.S. states.

North American Blackout After

 

Ah yes article above was what I was looking for. Some questions came to mind, that I thought were interesting as to the sequence of events and causes of Blackout .

1. Were they complete truthful about what caused that Blackout?

2. What were the sunspots doing in correlation to time of Blackout?

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

In dead of Winter what would you do if no power for prolonged periods?

These are some of the questions I had when we had already been living in rural areas back then and today.  I hated to think about how to approach people in larger urban population densities. What would they do? Of course,  rural areas will take longer to get up and running. So I had to find solutions.What are they?

Back up generators? Panels that could be switched over too, designed in house construction just in case loss of power that you could support the essentials based on running watts needed. Unfortunately you are relying on gas or diesel plants for that generation but until "energy extraction means are perfected" what are you to do?

The luxury of electricity provides for the means of a more advance society with capabilities but if you are pushed back in terms of the ways and means to keep warm, dependence on lighting systems, then such a return to a more primitive life style is your only option? Fireplaces to keep warm?

What can we expect out of Middle East if they can shake off the chains of being held back while moving forward into the future as countries of democracies?

In Canada appropriate royalties tacked onto oil and gas should have spur alternate energy resource research and development, as well stabilization of education and health care systems for a healthier country. Utilization resource based monies should spur on a more healthy Canadian democracy affirmation toward public support of public funded, schools, hospitals and hydro systems?

"Monopolies" are recognized when they can produce Shock and awe within a system(Libya-3%  of current demand) in order to increase their profits?  Price per barrel did not have to be raised for Egypt(tensions)?

Does oil and gas even register  on inflation charts as factors for that inflation?

Just a thought/question.

 

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

 

Thomas McIlwraith

Quote:
Ice storm anniversary brings back chills
Last Updated: Monday, January 6, 2003 | 8:24 AM ET
CBC News

Hydro-Québec has since rebuilt its power grid and is confident a similar storm would not be nearly as devastating. The outage would last only about seven days, not six weeks, it says. Communities have also set up emergency response teams to better handle crises, and many people in rural areas have stockpiles of food, wood and other necessities.

Boom Boom Boom Boom's picture

I have a small generator (3500 watts) and a wood burning furnace, and six months of wood stockpiled. The community has a generaor to pump water if necessary.

I guess our biggest concern is food - everything comes on the supply ship, but a significant power outage ought not to make a difference, except the food we buy comes from grocery stores in Sept-Iles....

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

glory satellite artist drawing.

Quote:
NASA’s latest Earth-observing satellite is set to launch tomorrow (Feb. 24), after a one-day delay, on a mission to improve scientists’ understanding of the Earth’s climate.

Supplied link above in correlation with Katrina?

On the subject of climate I had always been hesitant to make the following comment because of lack of evidence? I do not want to defer from questions to continue around climate debate.

Quote:
At 2:44:16 AM on March 13, all was well and power engineers at Hydro-Quebec resigned themselves to yet another night of watching loads come and go during the off-peak hours. The rest of the world had finished enjoying the dance of the aurora borealis, and were slumbering peacefully, preparing for another day's work the next day. The engineers didn't know, however, that for the last half-hour, their entire system had been under attack by powerful Earth currents.A Conflagration of Storms

The question that came to mind is if there is a "direct relation to sun activity and climate on earth?"  Further correlations to sunspots activity at time of major storms? What about when weather is not an issue? What are we not seeing?

In New York case, there was no storm in that region to cause cascade failure as proposed by Canadian resources in terms of reporting on that power failure. This should raise alarm, as to what we are "not seeing" while measures of influence's of Sun are scientifically looked at. All the while we are curtailing in our perspectives with regard to how safe we are as we sit in complacency.

Also there is a opportune time for Privatization to make money off essentials so why would you defer too,  "selling it off?" It should be publicly controlled. We ourselves can do it better then being ripped off by those who know a good thing when they see in terms of investment. Energy sector investments?

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

Hi Boom Boom,

It's a continuing evolution of the question around interruptions. It's definitely on ways to improve infrastructure in order to lesson effects of dependencies.

Gardens...and supply of food. How healthy is this for us anyway to return to some of the values we grew up with?

This question of evolution can move one to think of independence in rural community settings away from the grid. Water supplies and conservation,  natural resources.

I tried to think of the perfect package for such a demonstration and while looking at this "piecemeal" unbeknown to the global thinking needed such a development already existed in terms of how one could build, or,  buy a travel trailer. How it is set up to provide for living.

While it is indeed a luxury,  it is a demonstration for "utility of need" in case of the dependency issues forced onto oneself and their families.

Adaptations of solar panels to trickle charge batteries? So you are looking for ways to provide for some of those luxurious benefits.

I had a proposal here about someone with a good science background to explore ideas for "power generation" in car vehicles. Any takers?:)

Boom Boom Boom Boom's picture

Yeah, I have a nice garden -  it usually gives me a nice supply of carrots, beets, tomatoes, and lettuce, although last year's harvest was dismal, I don't know why.

Searosia

Spectrum - sorry, I wanted to continue on that discussion, but forgot about this thread :)  The links you've provided make for interesting reading

From what I've read, we can actually give a 0.1 - 0.2 degrees (Celcius) from this solar cycle (the measurement is actually calculated on a watts per square meter that we would receive from the sun at the high of the cycle compared to the low of this cycle...whether or not it actually results in this temeprature change is more speculation).  In part, the reason for the interest in this value is we've seen one of the stronger La Nina episodes in a while and the solar cycle is at it's low, yet we are still seeing some of the warmest months on the record books.  I can link you to the same things I've read...once I've found them again (I've posted on it in another forum as well).  I beleive it was on realclimate and a discussion on Wunderground.

Err, just a side note to myself..La Nina is somewhat known to have a cooling effect on the globe as the pacific ocean surface temepratures drop significantly, and significantly more than the solar cycles would.

radiorahim radiorahim's picture

Spectrum wrote:

 

1. Were they complete truthful about what caused that Blackout?

2. What were the sunspots doing in correlation to time of Blackout?

In 2003 we were in the downward side of Solar Cycle 23 with a smoothed sunspot number of around 75 at the beginning of the year and around 50 at the end of the year.

http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/SolarCycle/

 

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

radiorahim wrote:
In 2003 we were in the downward side of Solar Cycle 23 with a smoothed sunspot number of around 75 at the beginning of the year and around 50 at the end of the year.

Thanks for answering questions based on chart information you supplied link too.

There is something going on we currently do not understand?

These figures given in relation to years of 2003 and associative stories do not provide for any evidence to suggest that there is some corroboratory status to peak times of solar flare and the timing of the blackouts. Do you concur?

Quote:
At present, there is no established reason for the Sun's brightness to fluctuate on these time scales. The possibility that galactic cosmic rays, which are modulated by changes of the solar wind, may directly influence the climate is therefore attracting the interest of scientists.CERN's CLOUD experiment

 

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

Searosia wrote:
Spectrum - sorry, I wanted to continue on that discussion, but forgot about this thread :)

Sorry for not getting back sooner. Have been working all weekend. Holding my tongue with regard to climate change, I also refrain from joining the discussion because of where my own research took me as I learn about cosmic rays. Cosmc ray spallation

The general idea is shown in the figure which shows a cosmic ray shower produced by a high energy proton of cosmic ray origin striking an atmospheric molecule.

 

 

It was a correlative process for me, while going on in nature,  was also going on with regard to the LHC. A hobby you might say from a layman perspective.

Quote:
CLOUD uses CERN’s Proton Synchrotron to send a beam of particles – the ‘cosmic rays’ – into a reaction chamber. The effect of the beam on aerosol production will be recorded and analysed.

The roots of the experiment can be traced as far back as two centuries, when the Astronomer Royal, William Herschel, noticed a correlation between sunspots and the price of wheat in England. This marked the first observation that Earth's climate may be affected by variations of the Sun. Solar-climate variability has remained a great puzzle since that time, despite an intensive scientific effort. During the ‘Little Ice Age’ around the 17th and 18th centuries, when sunspots all but disappeared for 70 years, the cosmic ray intensity increased and the climate cooled. This seems to be merely the latest of around a dozen similar events over the last ten thousand years. At present, there is no established reason for the brightness of the Sun to fluctuate on these time scales. The possibility of a direct influence on the climate of galactic cosmic rays (which are modulated by changes of the solar wind) is therefore attracting the interest of scientists.

So it is not about fighting a perspective on solar contributions with regard to climate change but really looking at what might be going on and remain open to what can be gathered from the information.

I think this is about the truth factor we have to face as we gather the information in order to draw some conclusions based on experimental processes that we know exist.

Searosia

Quote:

So it is not about fighting a perspective on solar contributions with regard to climate change but really looking at what might be going on and remain open to what can be gathered from the information.

 

Completely agree, it's about understanding...very much a hobby for me as well. My only problem with cosmic ray research is the funding is almost exclusivley from sources that stand to lose if they can't find a feasible alternative to AGW...doesn't mean they can't find anything of interest, I'm just prepared to accept any of their data as skewed to suit their needs. Heh, the link to CERN's cloud experiment has the comment "(cosmic rays as) 50 to 100% of the climatechange on earth, so if he's right, somebody better sue the IPCC and all those other hypocrites that suck tax payer's money for years". Hard to deny the interest in cosmic rays is purely in response to claiming GW is caused by gasses our industries and population release. I'm all for learning on cosmic rays (hence my interest here) if it isn't done with the pretext of proving AGW incorrect. For what it's worth, I hate Pro-AGW peoples blinding themselves to science that doesn't support their view either (such a global warming should produce fewer hurricanes).

 

 

[url=http://pcic.uvic.ca/event/2011/cloud-experiment-cern]here[/url] suggests the results will be shared later in March. It's done by Jasper Kirkby, who's really become a poster boy on denial websites, but I think that is much to his chagrin. Unfortunately when he first released his thoughts, he said up to 100% of warming could be accounted for by cosmic rays. Heh, he got slapped fer that...I'm curious what he'll release here in march.

 

One thing that really bugs me...when we enter the hurricane discussion, it has to be known that much is effected by the relative lack of records and it's not that hard to point out accurate measuring later than 1950's doesn't really exist, which makes trending quite difficult. I see several claims in the solar radiation world claiming that we have accurate records on sunspot counting going back to 1200's...any of that true?  It really strikes me as odd that we'd have accurate measurements going that far back that accurately represent what we can measure now.

There's an attempt to peg recent weather phenom (winters in the US) on cosmic rays..this being the solar low right now...though I beleive we can give you a much better answer based on warming arctic waters heating the atmosphere differently (we saw the break down of the arctic and north atlantic oscillations this year).  A little weird, but a warming globe will create mass snow storms throughout mid latitudes and freeze europe.

and thanks for the links, I'm still reading ;)

Searosia

whoops double postings

Searosia

 

The Jasper Kirkby seemed to be hit by the same thing you're pointing out...after he said he thought 50%-100% of climate change could be atributed to cosmic rays, he was pretty much assaulted by both pro-AGW crowds and the denial side.  I think he knows with this debate, what his results actually are end up pretty meaningless...peoples mind are already well made up and it'd be an arguing point at best.   Get rid of that debate, and the science comes out a bit better.  He's being more diplomatic with it this time and is trending towards 'it might be a factor, lets find out how much of a factor it is' approach.  lol might be all smoke and mirrors, but we'll see when his data comes out how he's decided to interpret it. 

Admittadely, I never would really expect any scientist to come out with "the thing I've been studying all my life turns out to be true but results are negligable"...they tend to give more importance to their own work than is sometimes warented.

I've been following this (the climate change debate) for a good 5 years with readings (attended copenhagen too), along with a partial blog on the topic.  If you're interested, more than willing to share notes on a subject...and I'm relatively non-partisan, will conflict with conservationists and deniers alike.  I figure clashing with everything is the easier way to ensure that.  ha. The science has really advanced in the past 5-6 years alone...it's amazing what we know now compared to what we knew at the start of the 21st century.

 

My info on LHC is a little dated...fits into those categories where I can't wait for the results, so I'm ignoring it until we have results to discuss.

 

Quote:
I learn of the idea to look at collision points as points of multi-dimensional capabilities in what we see proceeding to measures of faster then light entities in mediums for effective tscan measures of, as Cerenkov background displays from cosmic ray spallations of those translation and collision points, as decay products of the original energy calculation.

 

care to expand on that at all? I'm curious on the faster than light entities...any info that deals with quantum nonlocality seems gold to me :D

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

 

Searosia wrote:

here suggests the results will be shared later in March

Oh so close to home! Thanks for this update.

I realize when some of the links provided were given that "the comment" might bring some rise to the idea of percentages  as supporting views about cosmic rays in relation to Climate Change.....yet as I said I have not taken sides here.  I am interested in the science of it.

It becomes impossible to show non partisanship because there may be inflections that would point toward siding with different sides while hope could spring forth in acknowledgement with new data and material? Not much to share really.

I'll give you a little history about where I had been in the midst of discussions going on the internet with scientists providing their research not from the climate change perspective but from the theoretical models that have been developed and how these could be applicable in experimental procedures as validity for their model assumptions. Some of the historical figures like Leon Lederman provided for some of my own beliefs on symmetry and how such views had become apart of the hopes for demonstrations in LHC.

But lets go some more here in terms of discussion around lawsuits pushed forward about the LHC provding for blackhole creation? These things had been spoken too, and amended in affirmation as to the intentions of LHC and the coming forth of the orgaization in terms of speaking on their behalf and their research agendas.

They( research showed)offered perspective on the issue on strangelets from different sources. This inspired informational conclusions as to the fate of the planet. Following this logic, and demonstration in literature I learn of the idea to look at collision points as points of multi-dimensional capabilities in that what we see proceeds from and accounts for measures of faster then light entities in mediums for effective tscan measures as Cerenkov background.  These displays from cosmic ray spallations of those translation and collision points, showed as decay products of the original energy calculation. Of course this historical information of the origination of where this energy was expedited from in the cosmos and the sun.

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

Searosia wrote:
My info on LHC is a little dated...fits into those categories where I can't wait for the results, so I'm ignoring it until we have results to discuss.

Ah thanks for asking.

As with perspective around FLY's eye experiment as and calculation of energy valuations on  cosmic particulates measures, there was a limit set of course. I am not to sure on al of speifics here. But that was the start for me.

MAGIC is an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope or IACT that has started measuring since the commissioning ended in late 2004. The project is funded primarily by the funding agencies BMFB (Germany), MPG (Germany), INFN (Italy), and CICYT (Spain).

So you know there is particle denomination. We can show that and correlations in LHC as a experimental procedure is side by side with our perspectives on what is happening in nature. So you have a source.... galactic,  and from our own sun.

So from "the source" to the "backdrops  of measure" as if photon pathway source for consideration shot through screen(Young) it is much like this as decay products are measurable values of original energy, the decay as particulate energy value from the original source?

So I'll point out some of this backdrops for consideration.


Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array....

Diagram of IceCube. IceCube will occupy a volume of one cubic kilometer. Here we depict one of the 80 strings of opctical modules (number and size not to scale). IceTop located at the surface, comprises an array of sensors to detect air showers. It will be used to calibrate IceCube and to conduct research on high-energy cosmic rays. Author: Steve Yunck, Credit: NSF

.....(AMANDA) is a neutrino telescope located beneath the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. In 2005, after nine years of operation, AMANDA officially became part of its successor project, IceCube.

AMANDA consists of optical modules, each containing one photomultiplier tube, sunk in Antarctic ice cap at a depth of about 1500 to 1900 meters. In its latest development stage, known as AMANDA-II, AMANDA is made up of an array of 677 optical modules mounted on 19 separate strings that are spread out in a rough circle with a diameter of 200 meters. Each string has several dozen modules, and was put in place by "drilling" a hole in the ice using a hot-water hose, sinking the cable with attached optical modules in, and then letting the ice freeze around it.

AMANDA detects very high energy neutrinos (50+ GeV) which pass through the Earth from the northern hemisphere and then react just as they are leaving upwards through the Antarctic ice. The neutrino collides with nuclei of oxygen or hydrogen atoms contained in the surrounding water ice, producing a muon and a hadronic shower. The optical modules detect the Cherenkov radiation from these latter particles, and by analysis of the timing of photon hits can approximately determine the direction of the original neutrino with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 degrees.

AMANDA's goal was an attempt at neutrino astronomy, identifying and characterizing extra-solar sources of neutrinos. Compared to underground detectors like Super-Kamiokande in Japan, AMANDA was capable of looking at higher energy neutrinos because it is not limited in volume to a manmade tank; however, it had much less accuracy because of the less controlled conditions and wider spacing of photomultipliers. Super-Kamiokande can look at much greater detail at neutrinos from the Sun and those generated in the Earth's atmosphere; however, at higher energies, the spectrum should include neutrinos dominated by those from sources outside the solar system. Such a new view into the cosmos could give important clues in the search for Dark Matter and other astrophysical phenomena.

After two short years of integrated operation as part of IceCube[1], the AMANDA counting house (in the Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory) was finally decommissioned in July and August of 2009.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://icecube.wisc.edu/science/publications/pdd/pdd12.php

External links

 

****

When a neutrino collides with a water molecule deep in Antarctica’s ice, the particle it produces radiates a blue light called Cerenkov radiation, which IceCube will detect (Steve Yunck/NSF)

 


 

 

Spectrum Spectrum's picture
Spectrum Spectrum's picture

So I think you get what I am saying? Not just volcanoes.

The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano.

 

Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures.

Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of rock as thick as one kilometre or more. During their trip, they are partially absorbed by the material they go through, very much like X-rays are partially absorbed by bones or other internal structures in our body. At the end of the chain, instead of the classic X-ray plate, is the so-called 'muon telescope', a special detector placed on the slopes of the volcano.

See: Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

***

MU-RAY project 
MUon RAdiographY

A. Kircher (1601-1680), “The interior of Vesuvius”  
A. Kircher (1601-1680): “The interior of Vesuvius” (1638)
Read more about Athanasius Kircher on Wikipedia.

Cosmic ray muon radiography is a technique capable of imaging variations of density inside a hundreds of meters of rock. With resolutions up to tens of meters in optimal detection conditions, muon radiography can give us images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is significantly better than the one typically achieved with conventional gravity methods and in this way can give us information on anomalies in the density distribution, such as expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil.

The MU-RAY project is aimed toward the study of the internal structure of Stromboli and Vesuvius volcanoes using this technique.

Spectrum Spectrum's picture

You sort of get the picture?

Geoneutrinos, anti-electron neutrinos emanating from the earth, are expected to serve as a unique window into the interior of our planet, revealing information that is hidden from other probes. The left half of this image shows the production distribution for the geoneutrinos detected at KamLAND, and the right half shows the geologic structure. See First Measurement of Geoneutrinos at KamLAND.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illustrations: Sandbox Studio See:Secrets of the Pyramids By Haley Bridger Symmetry Magazine

Searosia

THat's alot of reading...gimmie a couple days there.

 

[url=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/news/fermi-thunderstorms.html]you might find this interesting[/url]...not sure if you are aware of Fermi, but we caught antimatter reactions happening in our atmosphere with an interesting connection to lightning.

Spectrum Spectrum's picture
Spectrum Spectrum's picture

The calorimeter design for GLAST produces flashes of light that are used to determine how much energy is in each gamma-ray. A calorimeter ("calorie-meter") is a device that measures the energy (heat: calor) of a particle when it is totally absorbed. CsI(Tl) bars, arranged in a segmented manner, give both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. Once a gamma ray penetrates through the anticoincidence shield, the silicon-strip tracker and lead converter planes, it then passes into the cesium-iodide calorimeters. This causes a scintillation reaction in the cesium-iodide, and the resultant light flash is photoelectrically converted to a voltage. This voltage is then digitized, recorded and relayed to earth by the spacecraft's onboard computer and telemetry antenna. Cesium-iodide blocks are arranged in two perpendicular directions, to provide additional positional information about the shower.

 

Yes I had been there when it was know as Glast.

Logo for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet

NASA's newest observatory, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST, has begun its mission of exploring the universe in high-energy gamma rays. The spacecraft and its revolutionary instruments passed their orbital checkout with flying colors.

NASA announced August 26 that GLAST has been renamed the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The new name honors Prof. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), a pioneer in high-energy physics.

See:NASA Renames Observatory for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky

My interest was in calorimetric readings.. and all "other" calorimetric associations, even,  in the LHC.

Iron wedges of the CMS forward calorimeter-Source from Quantum Diaries Survivor.

I'll be around.