Is the Canadian military a friend and ally of First Nations or an exploiter and repressor?
The military's immense resources and cultural clout certainly enables it to attract Indigenous youth to become soldiers. But First Nations have more reason than most to be wary of the Canadian Forces (CF).
A recent iPolitics story titled "'This is where I need to be': Indigenous military summer programs 'fantastic' for young recruits" detailed the CF's recruitment of Indigenous youth. The article quoted 19-year old Private Brandon Julian saying, "I love Canada … I want to serve this country."
The story described the Bold Eagle, Raven, and Black Bear leadership and training programs for young adults aged 18 to 25 from reserves. Partnering with the Saskatchewan Indian Veteran's Association and Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, the CF launched Bold Eagle three decades ago. The program is a three- or four-day "culture camp" conducted by First Nations elders "followed by a military recruit training course."
Receiving input from its Defence Aboriginal Advisory Group, the CF operates various programs focused on Indigenous youth. CF recruiters participate in National Aboriginal Day events and oversee the Aboriginal Entry Plan, a three-week training. In 1971, the CF introduced the Northern Native Entry Program and the military-funded Cadet Corps has long worked with band councils and schools on reserves.
The CF has also organized international Indigenous exchanges. In 2015 the military sent 12 members of the Northern Canadian Indigenous Sovereignty Patrol and Surveillance Unit to Australia for a series of trainings and events with the largely aboriginal NORFORCE. Canadian Defence Advisor to Australia Colonel Acton Kilby, Canadian Aboriginal Veterans Association President Richard Blackwolf, and former Indigenous NHL player Reggie Leach were part of the delegation.
A number of monuments, usually supported by Veteran Affairs, honour First Nations veterans. In Batoche, Saskatchewan, the Métis Veterans Memorial Monument is dedicated to those who "served alongside other Canadian servicemen and servicewomen in the South African War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and in each of the efforts since then to defend our country and contribute to international peace and security." For its part, the National Aboriginal Veterans Monument in Ottawa says it was "raised in sacred and everlasting honour of the contributions of all Aboriginal Canadians in war and peacekeeping operations." Apparently, it's the only official monument in Ottawa commemorating Indigenous peoples or history.
A growing number of landmarks bear the names of Indigenous soldiers. A monument at the 3rd Canadian Ranger Patrol Group building at CFB Borden and a Parry Sound statue are dedicated to top World War I Indigenous sniper Francis Pegahmagabow. World War II and Korea veteran Tommy Prince has a statue, school, street, drill hall, CF base, two educational scholarships, and a cadet corps named in his honour.
The CF, government commissions, and Indigenous veterans' associations -- often backed by Veteran Affairs -- have also produced much laudatory literature on Indigenous veterans. A dozen books and theses, as well as hundreds of articles detail First Nations' contribution to Canadian-British wars and mostly echo the military's perspective of those conflicts.
But a critical look at the historical record suggests Canadian militarism has, in fact, been a primary tool of the colonial project to steal Indigenous land and enforce settler control. The CF grew out of the British force that conquered large swaths of this land. The 'father' of Canada's army, Lieutenant-Colonel William D. Otter, led a force that attacked Cree and Assiniboine warriors in 1885 near Battleford, Saskatchewan, in the Battle of Cut Knife. Without orders to do so, Otter asked permission to "punish [Cree leader] Poundmaker." As such, the Montreal Daily Star coined the term "Otterism" as a "synonym for merciless repression."
During the past century, the military has expropriated a great deal of Indigenous land for its bases. The most infamous example is Stoney Point, near Sarnia, Ontario, which after a half century of military occupation led to the Ipperwash Crisis in which the Ontario Provincial Police killed Ojibway protester Dudley George.
From low-flying jets in Labrador to DEW Line waste, First Nations have borne a disproportionate share of the military's ecological footprint. Brian Lloyd, a former British Army bomb-disposal expert who cleaned up Canadian sites, told the New York Times, "In Canada, the military acted like a giant, using Indian land like stepping stones across the country. You find an Indian nation, and you find range contamination."
Despite claiming not to spy on Canadians, the CF continues to monitor Indigenous dissent. Between 2010 and mid-2011, the CF's National Counter-Intelligence Unit produced at least eight reports concerning Indigenous organizations. In Policing Indigenous Movements, Andrew Crosby and Jeffrey Monaghan document CF's surveillance of 2012-13 Idle No More protests and how the CF's National Counter-Intelligence Unit also monitored the 2013 Mi'kmaq-led anti-fracking camp in Elsipogtog, New Brunswick.
The CF's glorification of First Nations military participation should not confuse people about the Canadian Forces' role in enforcing the imperial order here and abroad.
If you would like to organize an event as part of the fall tour for Yves Engler's forthcoming Left, Right: Marching to the Beat of Imperial Canada (Black Rose Books) please get in touch at yvesengler [at] hotmail.com.
Image: Canadian Army
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