Attawapiskat: Firing back at the racist rants and ignorant responses with facts

| December 1, 2011

I still intend to get a series of posts out clarifying issues like First Nations housing, health care, education and so on, but I have a confession. I haven't been staying away from the comments sections of articles about Attawapiskat.

I know. It's not healthy. There are so many racist rants and outright ignorant responses that it can bog you down. Where do you even begin, when the people making these comments do not seem to understand even the bare minimum about the subject?

Well, I try to answer questions with facts. Here are some of those facts, if you're interested.

Harper said Attawapiskat got $90 million, where did it all go!?

Yes, Prime Minister Harper is apparently scratching his head about where $90 million in federal funding to Attawapiskat has gone. Many commentators then go on to make claims about lack of accountability, and no one knowing what happens to the money once it is 'handed over' by the federal government.

Let's start simple.

First, please note that $90 million is a deceptive number. It refers to federal funding received since Harper's government came into power in 2006. In the 2010-2011 fiscal year, Attawapiskat received $17.6 million in federal funds. The document linked to shows the breakdown of federal funds in case you wanted to know how much is allocated to things like medical transportation, education, maternal health care and so on.

Thus, $90 million refers to the total of an average of about $18 million per year in federal funding since 2006.

As an aside, you will often see the figure of $34 or $35 million in funding given to Attawapiskat a year. This actually refers to total revenues. As noted, federal funding was $17.6 million, and provincial funding was $4.4 million. The community brings in about $12 million of its own revenue, as shown here. So no, the 'government' is not giving Attawapiskat $34 million a year.

Okay fine, but where did it go?

Attawapiskat publishes its financial statements going back to 2005. If you want to know where the money was spent, you can look in the audited financial reports. This document for example provides a breakdown of all program funding.

Just getting to this stage alone proves false the claim that there is no accountability and no one knows where the money goes.

But $90 million could have built the community 360 brand new houses!!

Assuming, as Grand Chief Stan Louttit of the Mushkegowyk Council has stated, that a new house costs $250,000 to build in Attawapiskat (with half of that being transportation costs), then yes, 360 new units could have been provided by $90 million.

However, this money was not just earmarked for the construction of new homes.

An important fact that many commentators forget (or are unaware of) is that section 91(24) of the Constitution Act of 1867 gives the Federal Crown exclusive powers over "Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians."

You see, for non-natives, the provinces are in charge of funding things like education, health-care, social services and so on. For example, the Province of Ontario allocated $10,730 in education funding per non-native pupil in the 2010-2011 fiscal year. For most First Nations, particularly those on reserve, the federal government through INAC is responsible for providing funds for native education.

How is this relevant?

It helps explain why the entire $90 million was not allocated to the construction of new houses. That $90 million includes funding for things like:

• education per pupil

• education infrastructure (maintenance, repair, teacher salaries, etc)

• health care per patient

• health care, infrastructure (clinics, staff, access to services outside the community in the absence of facilities on reserve)

• social services (facilities, staff, etc)

• infrastructure (maintenance and construction)

• a myriad of other services

These costs are often not taken into account when attempting to compare a First Nation reserve to a non-native municipality. In fact, many people forget that their own health-care and education are heavily subsidized by tax dollars as well.

What's the point here?

How much money was actually allocated to housing in 2010-2011? Page 2 of Schedule A shows us that out of the $17.6 million in federal funds, only $2 million was provided for housing. Yes, even $2 million would be enough to eight brand new homes, if those funds were not also used to maintain and repair existing homes. The specific breakdown of how that money was spent is found in Schedule I.

Now, I admit I am confused about something. The Harper article states:

According to figures providing by Aboriginal Affairs, the Attawapiskat Cree band has received just over $3 million in funds specifically for housing and a further $2.8 million in infrastructure money since 2006.

That is actually less than I estimated it would be, going by the 2010-2011 figures. I estimated $10 million for housing, but INAC (now Aboriginal Affairs) is saying it was $5.8 million.

Anyway, that isn't too important. The point is, if INAC is correct, only $5.8 million has gone towards housing for Attawapiskat. At most that could have built the community 23 new houses, if Attawapiskat had merely let the older houses go without any repairs or maintenance for five years. Letting existing homes go like that is not a great strategy, however.

The point here is, $90 million sounds like a huge amount, but the real figures allocated to housing are much, much smaller.

Fine, they got $5.8 million for housing, surely that is enough?

Again, assuming 23 new homes were built, and all older homes were left without maintenance and repairs, and the people in charge of housing worked for free and there were no other costs associated with administering the housing program, Attawapiskat would still be experiencing a housing crisis.

It is estimated that $84 million is needed for housing alone to meet Attawapiskat's housing needs (you'll find those figures in a small table on the right, titled "Attawapiskat by the numbers").

The Feds are just handing that money over and the Band does whatever it wants with it!

Many people seem to be labouring under the misapprehension that First Nations have self-governance and run themselves freely. This is far from the truth, but given that most Canadians are familiar with the municipal model, the confusion is actually understandable. It isn't as though Canada does a very good job of teaching people about the Indian Act.

Section 61(1)(a-k) of the Indian Act details that: "With the consent of the council of a band, the Minister may authorize and direct the expenditure of capital moneys of the band" for various purposes.

What this means is that Ministerial approval is actually a requirement before any capital expenditures can occur on reserve. In practice, a Band will generally pass a Band Council Resolution (BCR) authorising a certain expenditure (say on housing), and that BCR must be forwarded to INAC for approval.

That's right. Most First Nations have to get permission before they can spend money. That is the opposite of 'doing whatever they want' with the money. Bands are micromanaged to an extent unseen in nearly any other context that does not involve a minor or someone who lacks capacity due to mental disability.

Any claims that INAC has no control over what Bands spend their money on is false.

I would hope by now you'd ask the following question:

If INAC has to approve spending, why is Harper so confused?

There is a tendency to believe that our government officials do things in a way that makes sense. This, despite the fact that most of us don't actually believe this to be true. We want to believe. I know I do.

So upon learning that the federal government is the one in charge of providing services to First Nations that are provided to non-natives by the province, we might assume that the provision of these services are administered in a comparable manner.

Not so! And it actually makes sense why not, when you think about it for a moment. Have you ever seen a federal hospital, for example? No, because hospitals are built, maintained, and staffed by the provinces. Thus, when a First Nations person needs to access healthcare, they cannot access federal infrastructure. They must access provincial infrastructure and have the feds rather than the province pick up the tab.

If only it were as easy as federal funding via provincial structures.

The Auditor General of Canada speaks up

The Auditor General of Canada released a report in June of this year examining Programs for First Nations on Reserve. A similar report was published in 2006. This report identifies deficiencies in program planning and delivery by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), Health Canada, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat.

The reports also provide a number of recommendations to improve these deficiencies. The 2011 report evaluated the progress made since the 2006 report, and in most areas, gave these federal agencies a failing grade.

Don't worry, there is a point to this, stay with me.

The 2011 report has this to say:

In our view, many of the problems facing First Nations go deeper than the existing programs' lack of efficiency and effectiveness. We believe that structural impediments severely limit the delivery of public services to First Nations communities and hinder improvements in living conditions on reserves. We have identified four such impediments:

• lack of clarity about service levels,

• lack of a legislative base,

• lack of an appropriate funding mechanism, and

• lack of organizations to support local service delivery.

I know this is going to look like mumbo jumbo at first, so let me break it down a little for you. This will help explain why millions of dollars of funding is not enough to actually improve the living conditions of First Nations people, particularly those on reserve.

Lack of clarity about service levels

As explained earlier the federal government is in charge of delivering services that are otherwise provided by the provinces to non-natives. The Auditor General states:

"It is not always evident whether the federal government is committed to providing services on reserves of the same range and quality as those provided to other communities across Canada."

Shockingly, the federal government does not always have clear program objectives, nor does it necessarily specify specific roles and responsibilities for program delivery, and has not established measures for evaluating performance in order to determine if outcome are actually met.


That's right. The federal government is not keeping track of what it does, how it does it, or whether what it is doing works. The auditor-general recommends the federal government fix this, pronto. How can a community rely on these services if the federal government itself isn't even clear on what it is providing and whether the programs are working?

Lack of a legislative base

"Provincial legislation provides a basis of clarity for services delivered by provinces. A legislative base for programs specifies respective roles and responsibilities, eligibility, and other program elements. It constitutes an unambiguous commitment by government to deliver those services. The result is that accountability and funding are better defined."

The provinces all have some sort of Education Act that clearly lays out the roles and responsibilities of education authorities, as well as mechanisms of evaluation. There is generally no comparable federal legislation for the provision of First Nations education, health-care, housing and so on.

As noted by the AG, legislation provides clarity and accountability. Without it, decision can be made on an ill-defined 'policy' basis or on a completely ad hoc basis.

Lack of an appropriate funding mechanism

The AG focuses on a few areas here.

Lack of service standards for one. Were you aware that provincial building codes do not apply on reserve? Some provincial laws of ‘general application' (like Highway Traffic Acts) can apply on reserve, but building codes do not. There is a federal National Building Code, but enforcement and inspection has been a major problem. This has been listed as one of the factors in why homes built on reserve do not have a similar ‘life' to those built off reserve.

Poor timing for provision of funds is another key issue. "Most contribution agreements must be renewed yearly. In previous audits, we found that the funds may not be available until several months into the period to be funded." This is particularly problematic for housing as "money often doesn't arrive until late summer, past the peak construction period, so projects get delayed and their costs rise."

Lack of accountability.

"It is often unclear who is accountable to First Nations members for achieving improved outcomes or specific levels of services. First Nations often cite a lack of federal funding as the main reason for inadequate services. For its part, INAC maintains that the federal government funds services to First Nations but is not responsible for the delivery or provision of these services."

The AG also refers to a heavy reporting burden put on First Nations, and notes that the endless paperwork often is completely ignored anyway by federal agencies.

Lack of organizations to support local service delivery

This refers once again to the fact that there are no federal school or healthboards, no federal infrastructure and expertise. Some programs are delivered through provincial structures, while others are provided directly by the federal government, with less than stellar results.

As the auditor-general states, "Change is needed if meaningful progress is to be realized." There is extreme lack of clarity about what the federal government is doing, why, how, and whether it is at all effective. No wonder Harper is confused!

Tired yet?

Don't worry, the commentators aren't finished, and neither am I.

The Chief of Attawapiskat made $71,000 last year while her people live in tents!!!

Apparently we are supposed to be outraged at the excess involved here. This of course follows on the heels of a report by the Canadian Taxpayers Federation about 'jaw-dropping' reserve salaries. It's become fashionable to rant about Chiefs making more than premiers (though no one could make that claim here).

Attawapiskat publishes its salaries, travel expenses and honorariums (again, nothing being hidden here). Chief Theresa Spense was paid $69,575 in salary and honorariums in 2010-2011, and had $1,798 in travel expenses for a total of about $71K.

If you are like most people, you don't spend a lot of time looking at what public employees actually make. What number wouldn't shock you in the absence of such context? $50,000? $32,000? I suspect any amount would be offered as some sort of proof of... something not right.

Well okay. Why don't we take a look at some other salaries? But first, note that Ontario Premier McGuinty made $209,000 in 2010, and apparently over 100 public service executives made more than he did.

It is difficult to do a really accurate comparison of salaries, because Ontario's Public Sector Salary Disclosure Act of 1996 only requires that salaries over $100,000 be reported.(in addition, if the salaries are reported elsewhere, they are not necessarily included in this report) However, the annual reports a fantastic resource. Here is the list of various public sector employees making over $100K a year. I offer this merely in order to ask... were you aware these people were making this amount of money?

I sure wasn't. These are salaries paid by tax dollars, too. I have no idea if the Director of Quality Services for the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation should be paid $147,437.58 a year (sorry to single you out, sir, I chose randomly). If this Corporation were in the news and having financial difficulties, I have no doubt this salary would be brought up as somehow relevant... but is it?

I don't know if it is. That's the point. I don't think the people bringing it up know either. I haven't been able to find a source listing the salaries of mayors of municipalities in Ontario to compare to Chief Spense's salary. Then again, I doubt anyone would seriously claim that if she worked for free, the housing crisis in Attawakpiskat would be over.

The more you know...

I'm sure I'm forgetting some of the common accusations and arguments being made about Attawapiskat on various forums and comments sections of online news articles. I might update if necessary to address them, but I think you now have at least a base to begin with, whether you honestly just want to understand the situation a little better, or want to fight those comment battles.

If you would like an on-the-ground perspective, please check out Smoke Signals from Cree Yellowlegs. (Note: A song starts playing automatically)

Above all, my relations, don't let it get you down.

You will see people call for the abolition of the Indian Act, for the abolition of reserves and the 'assimilation' of First Nations into 'Canadian society'. You will see horrible things said about aboriginal culture. What you will rarely see are people responding to facts. Don't be discouraged when facts are brushed off in favour of accusations. We do have the power to educate those around us, and even if we can't reach the most vocal of bigots, we can reach the 'average' Canadian who is merely unaware rather than necessarily outright hateful.

Âpihtawikosisân is Métis from Lac Ste. Anne, Alberta. She currently lives in Montreal, Quebec, and is working on a BCL. Her passions are education, Aboriginal law, the Cree language, and roller derby.



thank you very much for this conprehensive sourse of facts. I hope it will help.

the harper government is not interested in facts.

Thank you.

Excellent article, thank you. No surprises here, the facist propoganda machine is alive an well in Canada. Our "public broadcaster" has a responsibility to present these facts to all Canadians but don't hold your breath.

Never let the facts get in the way of neo-fascist rasist propagana. How criminally irresponsible of the "Harper Government"


@Bobby Boondoggle - I agree, our public broadcaster does have that responsibility - however, the CBC currently is fighting for it's life, being attacked left, right, and center, by not only the fascist propaganda machine, but by conservative mp's surreptitiously starting petitions to "defund" the CBC, the richly-moneyed right-wing sponsored Quebec competitor, court cases (charges by the cpc govt' re FOIA), negative publicity campaigns, etc.  Add to this, the 10% cut in govt. funding ....

IMO, the CBC is trying to walk a very fine line, and is between a rock and a hard place .... they want to report the 'real news', but are being hobbled by govt. figures on the board, and unspoken threats/innuendos of massive cuts - if they don't toe the mark.  I've watched this happen over the last few years with the CBC - and if you had paid attention, you would have seen it too.

This is not/should not be about the 'public broadcaster' and their responsibility - they are much like all cons. mp's, - not allowed to express their honest opinions, but must abide the party line or be banished - we've all seen that happen!

This is really about the current govts. pathetic finger-pointing and refusal to accept their responsibility towards Natives.  They are a hateful, spiteful, bigoted, lying Govt. - and they will never change their colours.... how sad for our Country. how sad for the Aboriginals, and how sad for the citizens that we are all painted with the same brush as this gov't!



This really is an excellent article, kudos to the journalist!

Thank you for an excellent article.  I have several questions that I hope over time will be answered.  I noted that there was an expenditure of $3million plus for community development. This seems like a very large expenditure for such a small community especially when there is such dire need for housing and infrastructure.  I also know that it is often not possible when money is given in grants to move it from one line to another.  However I am interested in what projects/activities /issues are being undertaken under the heading of community development.  I have absolutely no knowledge or understanding of how housing works on a reserve.   Who actually owns the housing? Is private home ownership possible on the reserve or is the band responsible to provide all housing?  If private home ownership is possible are incomes sufficient to make this a reality?   Thank you in advance for answering my questions.  I sincerely hope that this situation will be addressed and that the people of Attawapiskat get adequate housing with all the infrastructure the rest of us take for granted.  I know that the issue of adequate housing is not limited to this reserve and that it must be addressed for all Canadians.  

Quibbling over which budgetary allocation is properly calculated and whether or not it was "responsibly" spent does not serve the people of Attawapiskat and other impoversihed First Nations--one might ask if Canadians across the country ask the same questions of, say, Red Deer's city hall or Sault Saint Marie's school board. Only the people of Attawapiskat have the right to decide what to do with or to ask questions about the money to which they are entitled.

Harper knows this, which is why he asks these diversionary and divisive questions which buy into Canadians' settler instincts to infantilize aboriginals and rob them of their right to self-determination.

I'm surprised that the chief's salary is so low--I bet the AVERAGE INAC white-collar employee makes substantially more. And are those travel expenses for real--she would have had to go out of the village maybe once or twice, since flights are no doubt really expensive, I bet it's at least $600 to fly round-trip to Montreal or Toronto. And I seem to recall that it's only been in the last few years that Ontario provincial bureaucrats stopped flying first class.

What I find most dismaying about this is how quick politicians of all stripe are to use the situation to score political points.

Hello, I have not read all the Rants, but I have a pretty good understanding of it all.  I was wondering if there is someplace to submit a donation to the Attawapiskat People.  I would also like to commend the CBC for reporting on factual news.  In fact, I think I will donate to the CBC as well.  Chi-Meegwetch CBC!

One other thing.  If this were a crisis in some other territory on the planet, the Canadian/Harper Government would send aid immediately no questions asked.

Hi Nanibush,

There is a Facebook group Support for Attawapiscat Cree First Nations which I recommend you check out. The admins are trying to sort out donations and can offer advice.

I hope that is useful.

Cathryn Atkinson

News Editor

I see no mention here of the deal between Attawapiskat and DeBeers.  Didn't they turn down an offer by DeBeers to build a certain amount of houses per year but the Band opted for something like $10 million instead?  Now where did that money go?  Someone?

Nobodyhere, in a deal between Attawapiskat and a corporation as greedy and demonstrably corrupt as DeBeers, you're asking what Attawapiskat did with the money??? 

Since you're asking, nobodyhere, much of that money was earmarked for housing and maintenance, as well as for a legal fund protecting Attawpiskat's interests. But of course, it's none of your or my business how the First Nations of Canada choose to spend (or dispute the use of) the money they receive.

I guess you think that $10-million is a lot of money for DeBeers to pay out for extracting wealth from Aboriginal land. How many minutes do you think it took them to make that back? Perhaps you should be asking how an immiserated and impoverished community can negotiate fairly and transparently with a multi-billion dollar transnational corporation with government support?

I suppose they should be grateful for DeBeers's pathetic offer of building houses--if indeed it was ever tendered. This is the first I've heard of it.

A few things:

You mention the reserves total income just once. Why is that? Why try to hide what they actually make? Would it not have been a stronger argument to explain why 35 million/ye­ar is not enough to run this reserve, instead of focusing on just the 90 million in federal funding? One is left wondering why you chose to ignore that argument - would it have been to your detriment?

"Attawapis­kat publishes its financial statements going back to 2005. If you want to know where the money was spent"
You imply that financial statements are the be-all-end­-all to financial responsibi­lity, fully exoneratin­g the band leadership from any wrongdoing­s or poor financial management­. Of course, this is not the case; auditors do not look into the issue of responsibl­e use of money. The only purpose of an audit is to attempt to verify that 14 million was indeed spent on administra­tion. Regardless­, audits are generally just a formality; Enron had audited financial statements­.

"Just getting to this stage alone proves false the claim that there is no accountabi­lity and no one knows where the money goes."
I still don't know where the 14 million in administra­tion costs went. Do you?
Perhaps it was all justified, perhaps it was used to buy a new Escalade. We just don't know.

"It helps explain why the entire $90 million was not allocated to the constructi­on of new houses. That $90 million includes funding for things like:"
Good to know, but this still ignores the 35million/­year the reserve makes in revenue. What was that being spent on? An appropriat­e answer would probably not focus so much on education costs (especiall­y without giving an approximat­e number of actual students in the reserve).

"These costs are often not taken into account when attempting to compare a First Nation reserve to a non-native municipali­ty. "
This would have been a good argument if you would have provided a comparison of your own, showing how much a non-native town of 1800 spends in a fiscal year. In fact, I would think you could do away with this entire blog entry and replace it with ANY evidence showing that a town of 1800 spends more than 35 million per year on operationa­l costs. That alone would have been sufficient to show the reserve is getting an unfair rap.
Even if it's impossible to find a town that spends more than 35m, a simple comparison with explanatio­n would have worked. For example, the region of Labrador West is in a similar environmen­t and only spent 9 million for 9000 people - when we compare this to the reserve having spent 14 million on administra­tion alone on just 1800 people, the quick conclusion is financial negligence­. Instead of ignoring this issue, explain why it might be misleading­.

"Section 61(1)(a-k) of the Indian Act details that: "With the consent of the council of a band, the Minister may authorize and direct the expenditur­e of capital moneys of the band" for various purposes.
What this means is that Ministeria­l approval is actually a requiremen­t before any capital expenditur­es can occur on reserve. In practice, a Band will generally pass a Band CouncilRes­olution (BCR) authorisin­g a certain expenditur­e (say on housing), and that BCR must be forwarded to INAC for approval"
Why did you stop there? You don't explain the most important aspect of this argument; how much scrutiny and detail does INAC go through before approval? Does someone at INAC simply stamp a form as long as everything looks ok, or is there a rigorous process for each and every expenditur­e?
If the process is entirely bureaucrat­ic and trivial, then most of your argument becomes meaningles­s. You need to explain why that is not the case.

That's all I have time for now. I really wish the author had done a better piece, with far less propaganda.


How Erza Levant's Knowledge of the Idle No More Movement is Willfully Ignorant Or How a Racist Achieves Nothing

The point is TZO, he mentioned the income, which isnt really any of your business unless your Cree. Why should we be audited anyway? What is it with the fascist inquisition anyway. None of this is anybodies business. If anybody should be opening up the books its the ones who make treaties and dont abide by them. The only reason anybody is telling you any of this is so you can learn to be free from racism. Im sure the writer wasnt comparing communities because he had to but to put intelligent peoples mind at rest so as not to cause the kind of fear and hate mongering that your up to.

All of those diamonds should be going to Attawapiskat since they are on their land. Who is stealing them? Every year that mine is more prosperous then the year before. Why arent the Cree living high on the hog? They should all be driving limousines. The Chief and the Cree people should all be happy and contented but their living in relative poverty while their resources are being stripped like every other resource in this country, by the prevailing government and their croney corporations. What nerve people have to say anything ignorant about them up there.

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